Colossus Method

In recent years, volleyball has undergone an important evolution that has affected the rules, athletic preparation and consequently the search for the typical athlete, the game, and the injuries that are most frequent today.
Volleyball, although not a physical contact sport, nevertheless experiences many situations that affect the casuistry of injuries that can be traumatic from contact with the ball on the fingers and on the wrist joint, all distractive phenomena at the ankle and knee joints with worrying wear and tear at the complex shoulder joint and consequent serious problems.
Volleyball has grown in popularity over the years, so much so that it is the most played team sport in European schools, along with football and basketball, and consequently in the number of participants and injuries.
This progress also affects the most talented and structurally strong athletes, who are thus able to reach professionalism.
All of this has, of course, improved the technical level in the pros, thanks to a greater choice.
In this article, however, I will refer exclusively to professional athletes.
Starting from the top of the skeletal system and the human body, we will analyse, specifically, the most frequent injuries of the professional volleyball player.
SHOULDER
The complex shoulder joint is subjected to continuous stress in volleyball, due to the movement for the correct execution of the serve and the dunk. The sporting gesture is extremely complex and the biomechanics of the movement involves the joints with the capsuloligamentous structures and a consequent wear that speeds up the arthrotic and chondropathic process.
The biomechanical study of the sporting gesture of the serve and the dunk shows an important concentration of the rotator cuff muscles, supraspinatus, subspinatus, small round and subscapularis, which, with their respective tendons, allow the glenohumeral joint the fluidity of the gesture.
Inflammation and wear are the main causes of injury.
FINGERS AND WRIST
Trauma from contact with the ball results, in the worst case, in the ‘hammer toe’, which is the volleyball player’s most serious injury.
This injury effectively prevents extension of the last phalanx of the finger, due to a tendon injury and/or bone fracture, and may not even be fully diagnosed by an X-ray examination and always requires further investigation.
Other less serious injuries, such as a bagged finger, result in an impediment to playing for a certain period of time and weaken the finger joints over time.
Wrist sprains, fractures, various inflammatory conditions and tendonitis are frequent in the volleyball player. The increasingly fast game and the violent impact with the ball lead to these types of injuries, which occur either in the initial phase of training but more frequently during the match (inadequate preparation and warm-up) or in the final phase, where the athlete’s fatigue leads to the sporting act being performed incorrectly.
BACK AND SPINE
The first enemy of the volleyball player is low back pain, which manifests itself due to the continuous stress caused by repeated elevation, compression, twisting and hyperextension of the back and spine.
Lumbago or dorsolumbalgia identifies the volleyball player’s pain in the dorsosacral and lumbosacral area of the spine.
Lumbosciatica further complicates the recovery of the affected player, as the sciatic nerve affects the lower limb with pain that also radiates into the back and vertebrae. A thorough check-up is necessary to exclude the presence of herniated discs.
The muscles of the back are subjected to continuous stress that can cause even significant damage to the muscle fasciae, of which muscle contracture is the most frequent with a high rate of recurrence, with impaired movement due to the presence of acute pain and a strong feeling of stiffness. If all of this is associated with a disc problem, the clinical picture is further aggravated and complicated.
KNEE JOINT COMPARTMEN
The volleyball court has a very hard surface that inevitably affects the joints, tendons, muscles and spine.
Patellar tendinosis is a very common inflammatory condition in the volleyball player who performs continuous elevation sprints with landings on a hard floor. This is clearly a type of functional overload injury. The hard, stiff surface is instrumental in promoting this type of injury.
Knee sprains occur due to an unnatural movement of the knee on a change of direction or wrong landing. Since there is no contact with the opponent, the injury is rarer.
Swelling, pain and inflammation lead to a slow recovery, which may even necessitate surgery.
The most serious injuries are those involving the anterior cruciate ligament (LCA), the posterior cruciate ligament (LCP), the medial collateral ligament (LCM), and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL).
Sprains of the knee joint compartment are classified according to the severity of the injury in ascending order:

  • FIRST GRADE: it presents a slight ligament injury that does not affect body weight bearing and walking, but can quickly worsen if stressed further.
  • SECOND-DEGREE: The ligament suffers partial detachments and tears that destabilise the knee joint compartment in walking and supporting body weight.
  • This second-degree sprain can be mild or severe, depending on the percentage of impairment.
  • THIRD-DEGREE: This last and most severe degree indicates the presence of total rupture of one or more ligaments with a total detachment that severely impairs body weight bearing and ambulation.
THE ANKLE
The ankle joint
consists of the tibio-tarsal or tibio-peroneal-astragalic, sub-astragalic and inferior tibio-peroneal joints.
Dorsal flexion and plantar flexion movement are impaired by sprains.
The classification has been dealt with, but we must understand that the ankle injury requires a significant period of recovery and re-athletisation. Recurrence is also higher than for the knee.
The sprain may be caused by extra rotation or intra rotation. Frequent recurrence can lead to a chronic condition that can compromise the player’s career.
CONCLUSIONS
The COLOSSUS METHOD intervenes with a sport-specific programme on training, injury prevention, rehabilitation and re-athletisation. All these phases, in fact, complement the management of the individual athlete and the team.
Years of study support me in this new management vision that drastically reduces the possibility of injuries during the season, thanks to the unique treatment of induced and controlled thermal shock with hot/cold frequencies, the result of years of experimentation.
The innovative training methods without breaks allow the muscles to reach 39 degrees and maintain the temperature throughout the workout: Alpha numerical training, neuro-muscular training with musical stimulation, immersion training and suspension training.
The Colossus Method also includes Kinesio Taping with an innovative technique for injury prevention and for rehabilitation and re-athletisation phases. Advanced progressive Colossus Method plyometric and stretching circuits are an integral part of the training phases.

Prof. Ph.D Francesco Calarco